Technology of growing champignons at home

Champignons are useful, tasteful mushrooms that can be grown in an artificial environment, for example, indoors or in the garden. The technology of growing champignons at home has been worked out for decades. To harvest the environmentally friendly and selected champignons, you need to follow the important rules of cultivation.


Contents:
  • Where grow mushrooms
  • Substrate Preparation
  • Planting mushroom mycelium
  • Forcing fruiting bodies
  • Harvesting

Where grow mushrooms

If you have decided to try to grow mushrooms at home orAt the dacha, the first thing to do is to predetermine the premises where the mushrooms will grow. To grow a small amount of mushrooms can be in:

  • basement,
  • garage,
  • barn,
  • greenhouse.

The main condition is to create an environment with good ventilation, high humidity and moderate temperature.

The most favorable temperature for stable growth of champignons is from 13 to 22 degrees Celsius, while the humidity should be at least 60-80%.

For growing mushrooms at

home you will need:

  • wooden or plastic containers for substrate;


  • fans for ventilation;
  • thermometers for measuring air and soil temperature.

Champignons also grow on the open ground. If you decide to plant mushrooms in his garden, then choose a place in the shade and semi-shade - under bushes, trees, raspberry bushes, with the shaded side of the fence and farm buildings, that is, in places hidden from direct sunlight.

To make a mushroom picking crop, it is usually placed in soil in April or August, as in the hot months fruit bodies are not formed.

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Substrate Preparation

Substrate preparation The most important thing in the cultivation of mushrooms is the preparation of the substrate. It is from the quality and properly composted will depend on both the quality and quantity of the crop. The main ideal constituent of the substrate for mushrooms is horse manure.

But today, as with the same success, manure of cattle, sheep, pigs and birds is used. Another important component of the compost is fresh, non-interrupted straw or hay. As various nutrient additives are added to the substrate potato, tomato or pumpkin botvu. Takzhe compost must saturate nitrogen components such as ammonium sulfate or urea.

In addition, without fail, different mineral additives are introduced into the substrate - superphosphate, chalk or gypsum. In addition, elements that have common nutrients will be superfluous in soil, so many add bran, cotton processing waste or bone meal.

If you comply with all the rules for the preparation of the substrate, the mushroom yield will be about 15-20% of the total volume of the nutrient mixture.

mycelium on an area of ​​about two square meters take:

  • 100 kg straw,
  • 2 kg of urea and superphosphate,
  • 5 kg of chalk,
  • 8 kilograms of gypsum.

All this connects to 170-200 kilograms of manure and in the end it turns out about 300 kg of substrate.

Compost is prepared in the open air, as when mixing all components begins the process of fermentation, which emits a characteristic ammonia odor. The process of making compost lasts about 20-23 days, after which it is obtained completely ready soil for planting the mycelium.

For substrate preparation:

  1. Straw is soaked for a day in water.
  2. Straw and manure are stacked in a row.
  3. Each layer of straw must be additionally moistened with urea and superphosphate.
  4. Compost is mixed and left for fermentation for 3-5 days, during which the mixture warms up to 50-70 ° C.
  5. With a periodicity of 5-7 days make a break in the mixture - the compost is mixed well and additional nutrients are added to it.
  6. last perebivki produce for 14-16 days, then allowed to warm up the compost to 50-60 ° C and laid into prepared boxes.
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Planting fungal mycelium

Planting mushroom mycelium mushroom mycelium planted at a depth of no more than 10 centimeters cooled to 23-25 ​​° C compost. In the first two weeks after planting, it is very important not to allow the temperature of the substrate to increase to 28-30 ° C and maintain high air humidity. When the temperature rises, the room should be cooled without creating drafts.

For maintenance of humidity it is recommended to spray the substrate, as well as to humidify the walls and floor of the room.

After two weeks mycelium should grow well, and at this stage it is necessary to cover the soil layer 3-4 cm thick, which shall consist of half of humus and peat, and half of chalk or loamy soil, previously scalded with boiling water. Distillation

sporophores

Fruit body stripping After the incubation period, 3-5 days after coating primer, proceeds to step mycelium of fruit bodies distillation. The further temperature regime of the substrate should be kept within 20-22 ° C, while the air temperature should be gradually lowered to 13-16 ° C at a humidity of 60-75%.

In such an environment, the first crop will be collected in two weeks.

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Harvesting

Harvesting long-awaited moment of collecting mushrooms harvest begins in three to four months after plantingAnd lasts about 2 months. Do not overtake the fruit. Mushrooms should be collected when the base of the cap is still covered with a white film and brown plates are not visible. Each mushroom should be carefully unscrewed from the soil, and not cut, like all mushroom pickers do.

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The fact that the rest of the leg after the cut-off can enter a bacterium that would disastrous for the entire mycelium. The place from which the mushroom was wrung out should be sprinkled with earth.

It is important to collect the whole crop without residue, which will provoke the pasture of a new wave of mushrooms.

With the right growing conditions and quality compost for the harvesting period from one mycelium, you can remove 5-8 waves of fungi.

The main amount of champignons is expelled in the first three waves, after which the yield will gradually decrease.

Undoubtedly, growing champignons in an artificial environment is a rather laborious process, requiring knowledge and time. But everything can be learned, besides it is an exciting activity that will eventually yield a useful and tasty result.