Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, in children and in adults. Symptoms and treatment of toxoplasmosis. Is toxoplasmosis dangerous during pregnancy?

What is Taxoplasmosis? Symptoms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of toxoplasmosis in adults, children and pregnant women.

Content

  • Way infection toxoplasmosis
  • Toxoplasmosis in adults: the symptoms and signs
  • Tokspoplazmoz in children: Symptoms and signs
  • Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: symptoms and signs
  • Diagnosis toxoplasmosis
  • analysis for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women
  • Description of analyzes for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. The norm of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women
  • Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, consequences for women
  • Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, consequences for the child
  • Treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnant, adult and children
  • Prevention of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women
  • How to treat toxoplasmosis: advice and feedback
  • Video: Toxoplasmosis
  • Toxoplasmosis is a complex disease caused by parasites of toxoplasma. The ultimate host of these parasites is the cat. However, the intermediate carriers tokosplazm can act like a man, and other animals
  • Today, about half the world's population is infected or is a carrier of Toxoplasma
  • Some of them do not even know about staying in your body so unpleasant zhiteley. Naibolee commonSuch infection in third world countries with a low level of life and income

Paths of infection with toxoplasmosis

How can I get infected with toxoplasmosis? How can I get toxoplasmosis?

As mentioned above, the cat is the host of the parasite, however, on the way to its owner, toxoplasm can pass through many animate and inanimate objects.
A person is capable of contracting this disease as follows:

  • through a contact of dirty hands with a face after cleaning in the garden or yard( specifically earth particles with the mouth)
  • through the cat toilet
  • through eating raw or uncooked meat, eggs
  • Through the ingestion of unwashed vegetables or fruits that have come into contact with the infected ground
  • through contact with the mouth of the hands holding raw, undercooked, nauseated or undercooked infected meat
  • through a blood transfusionOr the transplantation of
  • organs through contact with infected animals or humans when testing the
  • when treating a sick animal's meat through a cut or scratch
  • hereditary from mother to fetus
The scheme of infection with toxoplasmosis Scheme of infection with toxoplasmosis
  • The fact is thatParasites can be found in meat, intestines or feces of animals infected with them. When a pet( cat) goes to the toilet, its feces can contain toxoplasma larvae that can easily enter the human body through contact of unwashed hands with the face
  • In addition, a person can become infected with toxoplasmosis by eating rabbit, pork, lamb orVeal. These animals have the ability to be infected by parasites through the grass grown on land which were feces of other infected animals
  • Similarly, the person can carry infection, touched to the mouth of his hands smeared in contaminated soil, or eating poorly washed plant and the fruit of theOf such land

Toxoplasmosis in adults: symptoms and signs

Symptoms of toxoplasmosis in adults Symptoms of toxoplasmosis in adults

In an adult, only acquired toxoplasmosis can be diagnosed, sinceborn would have manifested itself in childhood or at birth.

Toxoplasmosis in adults can have three forms:

  • chronic
  • acute
  • latent

The latent form of the disease, as a rule, proceeds absolutely asymptomatically, and it is possible to detect it only when passing the tests. A person can be a carrier of toxoplasm for years and even decades, and not even suspect about it.

Acute form of toxoplasmosis is the least common disease. It occurs only in 0.2% of patients. Typically, these are patients with severe immunodeficiency or other autoimmune diseases( HIV).

The incubation period of the acute form of toxoplasmosis can range from five days to three weeks.

Main symptoms of acute forms of the disease are as follows:

  • fatigue
  • fever and chills( pain in the muscles and joints)
  • headaches
  • lymphadenopathy
  • change in the form of the liver and spleen
  • hepatitis
  • encephalitis or meningoentsifalit
  • myocarditis, endocarditis and
  • makulopaluleznaya rash
  • pneumonia
  • increase
  • temperature vomiting
  • eye problems( inflammation of the retina and choroid gaza, clouding of the lens)

In general, an acute form of toxoplasmosis in their symptomatology resembles poisoning. Such an unpleasant condition can last about a week. After this time, acute toxoplasmosis, as a rule, passes into a chronic form.

Symptoms of chronic toxoplasmosis in adults Symptoms of chronic toxoplasmosis in adults

Chronic toxoplasmosis, basically, proceeds in much the same way as the latent form of the disease. That is, there are no obvious symptoms and signs.

However, this happens at the time of remission. During the period of exacerbation, the following symptoms can be noted:

  • prolonged rise in body temperature to 37.5%( which can not be brought down by any antipyretics)
  • memory impairment
  • nervousness, irritability, mood swings
  • unreasonable fears
  • sensitivity to light and sound
  • worsening sleep
  • lymphadenopathy
  • abdominal pain nausea
  • constipation
  • dystonia
  • calcifications
  • endocrine system diseases

All of these signs often occur between two weeks to two months after infection.

Tokspoplazmoz in children: Symptoms and signs

Toxoplasmosis in children Tokspolazmoz children
  • acquired toxoplasmosis in children has the same symptoms as adults. Congenital same Toxoplasmosis is very dangerous
  • If a woman in the early stages of diagnosed infection of Toxoplasma, then it is usually recommended to have an abortion
  • If the infection occurred at a later date, it is possible that a child may be born with some deformities and pathologies

Such complex manifestations of the disease include:

  • strabismus
  • blindness
  • chorioretinitis( inflammation of blood vessels and retina)
  • epilepsy and convulsions
  • absCerebral cortex
  • developmental disabilities
  • movement coordination disorders
  • spinal cord injuries
  • hydrocephalus( large head and small body)
  • calcification in the cerebral cortex

Statistically, children with congenital toxoplasmosis several years agoDid not live to the age of five. Today, scientific discoveries and the development of medicine can fight with toxoplasmosis of congenital form and even completely cure children.

It is important to know that only the fruit that is infected in the womb of the mother can become infected with toxoplasma. All subsequent pregnancies of an infected woman will be successful, as antibodies to the disease will be developed in her body.

Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: symptoms and signs

Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women Tokspoplazmoz in pregnant

Most often toxoplasmosis in pregnant women does not show itself in any way. A woman feels the same as an uninfected pregnant woman.

However, in some cases, chronic or acute forms of the disease can manifest itself with the following symptoms:

  • high body temperature
  • rash
  • skin
  • lymph node enlargement
  • myocarditis
  • myositis
  • lesion brain
  • central nervous system
  • internal diseases
  • vision problems
  • genital diseases

diagnosis of toxoplasmosis

Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis diagnosis of toxoplasmosis

diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is usually done by a number of studies: serology, ultrasonography and computedTh tomography.

The last two diagnostic methods can detect the consequences of toxoplasmosis. But to determine the presence in the body of the parasites themselves or their trace of being in it, the serological method is used.

For blood serology, blood is taken from the vein.

The analysis reveals the presence of antibodies or immunoglobulins( Ig) in the blood to parasites of toxoplasm. If the infection has got into the human body, then he immediately begins to defend himself and produce special antibodies capable of neutralizing the virus.

So, serology determines the presence or absence of such immunoglobulins in the blood of a person.

analysis for toxoplasmosis in pregnant

Analysis for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women analysis for toxoplasmosis in pregnant

The ideal situation is when a woman still in the process of preparation for pregnancy will pass a number of tests for the presence of virus in the blood of toxoplasmosis.

  • Then it will be possible to find out whether she has ever contacted this type of infection or not. If antibodies are found in the blood, the woman should not be afraid of anything, as even contact with Toxoplasma during pregnancy to her after what
  • But if such immunoglobulins in analyzing it were not found, then it is necessary to be careful and follow all therules preventing a disease( of which will be discussed later)
  • If the pregnancy of a woman on the eve of an unplanned and serology was not performed, then TORCH-infection analysis she will be appointed in the first trimester of pregnancy
  • Such analysis can updruzhit in the blood of pregnant active antibodies, indicating a severe infection in the body, or an antibody, indicating that the woman before pregnancy faced with Toxoplasma and have them immunity
  • If in the course of studies have found women infected virus, it can beAppointed additional analysis after two to three weeks
  • This analysis will give an accurate picture of the time of infection and what can be expected from the virus. In parallel with the re-analysis is carried out to infection study amniotic fluid( amniocentesis) for the presence of fetal infection
Amniocentesis procedure amniocentesis procedure

Amniocentesis is performed by introducing in the fetal bladder a thin needle through the mother's abdominal wall, and intake amniotic fluid.

In addition to the procedure for the study of amniotic fluid, additional ultrasound can be used to assess the size of the fetal organs and to identify pathologies in its development.

Analysis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. Norma toxoplasmosis in pregnant

Analysis of toxoplasmosis Deciphering tests for toxoplasmosis

During serological studies in pregnant two types of immunoglobulin _ IgG and IgM antibodies can be detected.

  • IgM antibodies found in a woman's blood testify to the infection of a woman with toxoplasma. Such immunoglobulins begin to be produced in the female body two weeks after infection. For a couple of months, their number first rises rapidly, and then descends to zero
  • The presence of IgG-type antibodies in the blood suggests that the woman's immunity encountered toxoplasmic viruses and overcame them. The presence of such antibodies can persist in human blood for several years.
  • . If the antibodies of the same type were detected during the study, then this situation can indicate a disease with toxoplasmosis within the previous twelve months. In this case, the woman is prescribed an additional analysis - for antibodies antibodies
Analysis for avidity of antibodies to toxoplasmosis Analysis of the avidity of antibodies to toxoplasmosis
  • higher avidity antibody IgG( more than forty percent), the less the likelihood that a woman infected with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy
  • This applies in those instances when the presence of both groups of antibodies was detected during the analysis in the first trimester
  • If the avidity of IgG immunoglobulins is lower than the indicated index, then the analysis will usually be decided to be repeated a couple of weeks later.
  • So immediately diagnose infection with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, doctorssolved. Only after the second study, in the situation when IgG avidity remained low enough, it is possible to talk about infection of a pregnant woman already
  • If the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in a pregnant woman is confirmed, she is prescribed amniocentesis and PCR to exclude the fact of fetal infection. PCR is a polymer chain reaction that can detect the presence of infection in the fetus. If the PCR is negative, do not worry - the baby is not infected

Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, consequences for women

Consequences of toxoplasmosis for women Consequences of toxoplasmosis for women

As a rule, toxoplasmosis during pregnancy does not carry a particular danger for the expectant mother. More is to beware of the crumbs.

There are times when a woman experiences all the most complicated symptoms of toxoplasmosis during infection. However, this happens very rarely and it is much easier to cure it of this disease, rather than to prevent irreversible processes in the development of the fetus.

Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, consequences for the child

Consequences of toxoplasmosis for children consequences of toxoplasmosis for

children Unlike the mother, the baby is most susceptible to the development of various types of pathologies and complex diseases.

  • The greatest risks occur when a woman is infected with toxoplasmosis directly during pregnancy and on the eve of her. In these cases, with timely diagnosis of the disease, most physicians may insist on an abortion
  • Statistics says that nearly one hundred percent of infected pregnant women in early pregnancy ended in miscarriage or death at a later date
  • The fact is that this disease can be treated, But the drugs used for treatment are so strong that their impact can not but affect the development of the fetus. Precisely because the situation is too complex and contradictory
  • If the infection occurred at a later date, there is a small chance that the infection will not spread to the fetus. There are cases when women with toxoplasmosis in late terms give birth to absolutely healthy children. However, there are more sad examples of

Treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnant, adult and children

Treatment of toxoplasmosis Treatment of toxoplasmosis
  • Treatment for adult toxoplasmosis is only acute form of the disease
  • For latent and chronic toxoplasmosis special treatment is not required
  • As a rule, to cure this disease, sulfonamide preparations are used in combination with chloride and dojagil
  • In parallel, a course of tetracycline antibiotic antibiotics
  • If there is a lesion of the central nervous system, the doctor can prescribe glucocorticoids
  • In almost all cases, the patient with toxoplasmosis shows the course of immunomodulators, vitamin complexes and antihistamines
  • For very complex acute manifestations of the disease, a course of chemotherapeutic drugs( delagil, fanzidar)
  • As a rule, the course of treatment of toxoplasmosis is carried out in two stages - the first - ten days, then the break in ten days, and again the ten-dayTreatment
  • Treatment of pregnant women should begin at the end of the first trimester - after the twelfth week
  • Often pregnant prescribe sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine
  • The same group of drugs is used for children as for adults, only in other dosages

Prevention of toxopalazmosis in pregnant women

Prophylaxis of toxoplasmosis Prophylaxis of toxoplasmosis
  • As mentioned above, to reinsure a woman, it is advisable to pass an analysis for the presence of immunoglobulins to toxoplasma in her blood even before conception. This will detect the presence of antibodies, thereby calming the future mother
  • If only IgG antibodies were found in the blood, a woman can safely continue her usual lifestyle without fear of infection. Her pet can also continue her carefree existence.
  • . If a woman has no antibodies to toxoplasmosis in her body, she should be more careful. If her apartment lives a cat, it is desirable to take her tests for parasites
  • if conducted analyzes show the absence of Toxoplasma, then the cat is very good care not to give raw or undercooked meat, not to release the street, avoid contact with other animals
In the garden only in gloves In the garden only in gloves

If a cat has been found parasites, it is better for a pregnant woman to limit her contact with an animal as much as possible. In some cases, doctors advise to remove the cat altogether.

It is also not recommended to start a new pet during pregnancy. But if you already want to acquire a little happiness, you must first take samples from him for the presence of a virus in the body.

In any case, whatever the blood tests of a pregnant woman, it is worth following a number of rules to avoid toxoplasmosis:

  • only eat ready-to-eat meat
  • all products must be washed thoroughly before use
  • regularly wash hands
  • To work in the garden or yard use gloves
  • shift the duty of cleaning the cat's toilet to someone from the household

How to treat toxoplasmosis: advice and feedback

Immunity hardening is the best prevention of toxoplasmosiska immunity - the best prevention of toxoplasmosis

Whatever has not been developed, modern medicine, and no matter how effective was no treatment of toxoplasmosis, it is best to avoid infection by their compliance with the rules of personal hygiene and advice of doctors.

To a greater extent, this applies to pregnant women and children. After all, this is the most vulnerable category of the population. In addition, treatment of this category is associated with a number of difficulties and contraindications.

In addition to all the listed methods of prevention of toxoplasmosis, a person must definitely strengthen his immunity:

  • eat correctly
  • eat enough vitamins and useful trace elements
  • play sports
  • harden
  • spend more time outdoors

Video: Toxoplasmosis